Course Descriptions

The below course information applies to students enrolled in terms starting after March 22, 2017. All other students should refer to Prior Concord Policies and Courses.

CL500: Fundamentals

The Fundamentals course is designed to give you a glimpse into the law school experience and the tools and systems you will use while at Concord Law School so that you are prepared to begin your studies on the first day of class. While not required and no credit is given, participation is highly encouraged as it will provide foundational knowledge of the law and how to best prepare for your law school journey.

Credit Hours: 0 | Prerequisite: None

CL600: Introduction to Legal Analysis I

This first-year course is designed to introduce you to the study of law and the American Legal System. It teaches you the ability to spot and analyze legal issues in factual situations. The course also introduces you to legal reasoning and legal writing.

Credit Hours: 1 | Prerequisite: None

CL601: Introduction to Legal Analysis II

This course is a continuation of CL600: Introduction of Legal Analysis I. This first-year course is designed to introduce you to the study of law and the American Legal System. It teaches you the ability to spot and analyze legal issues in factual situations. The course also introduces you to legal reasoning and legal writing.

Credit Hours: 1 | Prerequisite: CL600

CL610: Contracts I

This course examines the legal theories and principles relating to parties and agreements and their resultant obligations or benefits. Covered topics include: formation, conditions, and remedies of contracts; bargained-for consideration; third-party contracts (including assignments and delegations); statute of frauds; parole evidence; impossibility of performance; and frustration of purpose.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: None

CL611: Contracts II

This course is a continuation of CL610: Contracts I. This course examines the legal theories and principles relating to parties and agreements and their resultant obligations or benefits. Covered topics include: formation, conditions, and remedies of contracts; bargained-for consideration; third-party contracts (including assignments and delegations); statute of frauds; parole evidence; impossibility of performance; and frustration of purpose.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: CL610

CL620: Torts I

This course explores the study of civil liability relating to intentional acts and violation of duties imposed by law. In addition, legal wrongs committed by a private person upon the person or property of another independent of a contractual relationship are covered in detail in this course. Topics include intentional torts, negligence, strict liability, product liability, nuisance, defamation, invasion of privacy, and misrepresentation.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: None

CL621: Torts II

This course is a continuation of CL620: Torts I. This course explores the study of civil liability relating to intentional acts and violation of duties imposed by law. In addition, legal wrongs committed by a private person upon the person or property of another independent of a contractual relationship are covered in detail in this course. Topics include intentional torts, negligence, strict liability, product liability, nuisance, defamation, invasion of privacy, and misrepresentation.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: CL620

CL630: Criminal Law I

This course examines the state's ability to punish individuals for wrongs committed. Homicide, theft (including robbery and burglary), assault, rape, kidnapping, and arson as well as attempts, conspiracies, and solicitation are covered in depth. The state of mind required to commit a crime, including justifications and excuses, is thoroughly covered.

Credit Hours: 3 | Prerequisite: None

CL631: Criminal Law II

This course is a continuation of CL630: Criminal Law I. This course examines the state's ability to punish individuals for wrongs committed. Homicide, theft (including robbery and burglary), assault, rape, kidnapping, and arson as well as attempts, conspiracies, and solicitation are covered in depth. The state of mind required to commit a crime, including justifications and excuses, is thoroughly covered.

Credit Hours: 3 | Prerequisite: CL630

CL650: Constitutional Law I

This course examines the organization and framework of the federal government, the distribution of political and governmental authorities and functions, and the fundamental principles that regulate the relationship between the government and its citizens. Specific topics include the source of judicial review, the powers of legislative and executive branches, the authority reserved for the states, due process, equal protection, and First Amendment freedoms.

Credit Hours: 3 | Prerequisite: None

CL651: Constitutional Law II

This course is a continuation of CL650: Constitutional Law I. This course examines the organization and framework of the federal government, the distribution of political and governmental authorities and functions, and the fundamental principles that regulate the relationship between the government and its citizens. Specific topics include the source of judicial review, the powers of legislative and executive branches, the authority reserved for the states, due process, equal protection, and First Amendment freedoms.

Credit Hours: 3 | Prerequisite: CL650

CL660: Real Property I

The law governing all aspects of real property and the creation of rights is the focus of this course. Additional topics include ownership rights (including present estates), co-tenancy, future interests, and the relations between landlord and tenant. Real property contracts, statute of fraud problems, real property mortgages, conveyancing, and adverse possession are also discussed.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: None

CL661: Real Property II

This course is a continuation of CL660: Real Property I. The law governing all aspects of real property and the creation of rights is the focus of this course. Additional topics include ownership rights (including present estates), co-tenancy, future interests, and the relations between landlord and tenant. Real property contracts, statute of fraud problems, real property mortgages, conveyancing, and adverse possession are also discussed.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: CL660

CL670: Civil Procedure I

Access to the U.S. court system is the focus of this course. Proper jurisdiction and venue (including long-arm statutes and minimum contacts) are covered in detail. Other topics include pleadings, joinder of parties and claims, class actions, discovery, summary judgment, directed verdict, res judicata, collateral estoppel, and the appeal process.

Credit Hours: 3 | Prerequisite: None

CL671: Civil Procedure II

This course is a continuation of CL670: Civil Procedure I. Access to the U.S. court system is the focus of this course. Proper jurisdiction and venue (including long-arm statutes and minimum contacts) are covered in detail. Other topics include pleadings, joinder of parties and claims, class actions, discovery, summary judgment, directed verdict, res judicata, collateral estoppel, and the appeal process.

Credit Hours: 3 | Prerequisite: CL670

CL680: Criminal Procedure I

This course focuses on the law governing the rights of the accused. The topics of arrest, search, seizure, confession and self-incrimination, police lineups, and ineffective assistance of counsel are covered in detail.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: CL630 (can be taken as a corequisite)

CL681: Criminal Procedure II

This course is a continuation of CL680: Criminal Procedure I. This course focuses on the law governing the rights of the accused. The topics of arrest, search, seizure, confession and self-incrimination, police lineups, and ineffective assistance of counsel are covered in detail.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: CL680

CL700: Corporations and Business Organizations I

This course covers the area of law relating to artificial persons or legal entities, consisting of members acting with a common purpose. Particular emphasis is placed on the formation of the corporate unit, the sale of shares (including federal securities law), the operation and management of the corporation, and the law covering dividends, repurchases, and redemptions.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL701: Corporations and Business Organizations II

This course is a continuation of CL700: Corporations and Business Organizations I. This course covers the area of law relating to artificial persons or legal entities, consisting of members acting with a common purpose. Particular emphasis is placed on the formation of the corporate unit, the sale of shares (including federal securities law), the operation and management of the corporation, and the law covering dividends, repurchases, and redemptions.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: CL700

CL710: Evidence I

This course covers the substance of and means by which alleged matters of fact are proved or disproved in court. Central topics include the requirements for the introduction and impeachment of evidence, relevancy, character evidence, expert testimony, privileges, and hearsay. The course also covers the roles of judges and juries in the evaluation of evidence.

Credit Hours: 3 | Prerequisite: None

CL711: Evidence II

This course is a continuation of CL710: Evidence I. This course covers the substance of and means by which alleged matters of fact are proved or disproved in court. Central topics include the requirements for the introduction and impeachment of evidence, relevancy, character evidence, expert testimony, privileges, and hearsay. The course also covers the roles of judges and juries in the evaluation of evidence.

Credit Hours: 3 | Prerequisite: CL710

CL720: Legal Analysis and Writing I (JD)

This course covers the practical basis of "how to" write the kinds of documents that make up a lawyer's traditional practice: a client advice letter, an office (research) memorandum, and a memorandum of law in support of - or in opposition to - a dispositive motion, for example, a Motion for Summary Judgment. The course will also include an oral argument.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: JD only

CL721: Legal Analysis and Writing II (JD)

This course is a continuation of CL720: Legal Analysis and Writing I (JD). This course covers the practical basis of "how to" write the kinds of documents that make up a lawyer's traditional practice: a client advice letter, an office (research) memorandum, and a memorandum of law in support of - or in opposition to - a dispositive motion, for example, a Motion for Summary Judgment. The course will also include an oral argument.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: JD only; CL720

CL725: Legal Analysis and Writing I (EJD)

This legal writing and analysis course will teach you how to synthesize complex information, analyze and formulate strategy, and predict outcomes in client letters and office memorandums. You will learn to communicate in "plain English" to avoid legalese, unnecessary jargon, and other styles that call attention to the writing itself or in other ways obscure or detract attention from the meaning. You will develop professional skills and values pertinent to legal analysis.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: EJD only; CL730 (can be taken as a corequisite)

CL726: Legal Analysis and Writing II (EJD)

This course is a continuation of CL725: Legal Analysis and Writing I (EJD). This legal writing and analysis course will teach you how to synthesize complex information, analyze and formulate strategy, and predict outcomes in client letters and office memorandums. You will learn to communicate in "plain English" to avoid legalese, unnecessary jargon, and other styles that call attention to the writing itself or in other ways obscure or detract attention from the meaning. You will develop professional skills and values pertinent to legal analysis.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: CL725

CL730: Electronic Legal Research

This course focuses on research skills and techniques including the use of an online library. You will be assigned various research projects to be completed under the tutelage of your professor.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL735: Professional Responsibility

The law relating to the ethical standards that govern attorneys and judges is the focus of this course. It covers the ABA Rules of Professional Conduct, the ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct, and the ABA Code of Judicial Ethics. The course will also include materials on professional conduct of the attorney, the role of a lawyer, the lawyer as an officer of the court, and the relationship of the lawyer to society.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: JD only

CL740: Future of Law Practice

This course will explore emerging topics in law practice and culminate in a solution-oriented project which you will present to the class. Topics will include challenges and opportunities emerging in ethics, societal and legal industry change, and technology. Specific emphasis will be placed on application of the ABA Rules of Professional Responsibility to contemporary law practice. Skills emphasized in the course are: research, analysis, communication, and strategic planning.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: JD only; CL730

CL745: Cross Professional Ethics

This course is divided into two segments. The first focuses on fundamental, contemporary ethical questions in the practice of law and examines the basic premises underlying the lawyer-client relationship and some of the duties of lawyers including duties to clients, the public, the courts, and other professionals. The second segment compares the ethics of the legal profession with other professions including medicine and the clergy. The disciplinary process and professional malpractice are considered. The course incorporates various forms of media to illustrate ethical dilemmas in everyday professional life, including movies, television, and print media, in addition to a traditional text.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL750: Estates, Wills, and Trusts I

This course covers the law of estates and trusts as applied in California and gives a general overview of how it applies in the rest of the country. Issues dealing with the validity and revocation of wills are examined in particular, as they may affect distribution of assets of an estate. In addition, the laws of express trusts (including creation and administration), charitable trusts, and consecutive trusts are covered.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL751: Estates, Wills, and Trusts II

This course is a continuation of CL750: Estates, Wills, and Trusts I. This course covers the law of estates and trusts as applied in California and gives a general overview of how it applies in the rest of the country. Issues dealing with the validity and revocation of wills are examined in particular, as they may affect distribution of assets of an estate. In addition, the laws of express trusts (including creation and administration), charitable trusts, and consecutive trusts are covered.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: CL750

CL760: Community Property

This course covers the Law of Community Property and Division of Marital Assets in California. Specific topics include the characterization of property as separate or community, creditors' rights, third-party transfers, and the resolving of disputes upon the termination of a relationship or the death of a party.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL761: Family Law Practicum

This course continues where CL 760 left off, incorporating practical community property and family law skills and concepts. Family law is a very common practice area for solo and small firm attorneys, particularly early in their careers, and there is a societal need for representation in this area, given that 80 to 90 percent of family law litigants are self-represented. Family law is at the intersection of law, social policy, and the most intimate of human relations, marriage and parentage. This course will explore topics including jurisdiction over the family, separation, dissolution, annulment, parenting time, parenting responsibility, child support, partner support, and domestic violence. Much of family law is policy driven and designed with a policy outcome in mind. This class will help you analyze legal policy to determine if, in application, it meets the policy goal. You will engage in practical exercises in the context of California law and procedure.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: CL760

CL770: Remedies I

This course reviews both legal and equitable remedies, focusing on the underlying liability theories that give rise to the remedy and the remedy itself. Special attention is given to contract and tort remedies. Students will be exposed to the types of problems that they may encounter in law practice, with particular emphasis on ones that cross a variety of disciplines. Final papers are similar to the performance tests currently administered by the State Bar of California.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL771: Remedies II

This course is a continuation of CL770: Remedies I. This course reviews both legal and equitable remedies, focusing on the underlying liability theories that give rise to the remedy and the remedy itself. Special attention is given to contract and tort remedies. Students will be exposed to the types of problems that they may encounter in law practice, with particular emphasis on ones that cross a variety of disciplines. Final papers are similar to the performance tests currently administered by the State Bar of California.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: CL770

CL780: Capstone I

This course provides you with an effective means of integrating what you have learned over the course of your legal education, building on a strong substantive and skills foundation to make critical judgments about the law and policy as a practicing attorney. Special attention will be devoted to the skills necessary for success on the California Bar Examination. Through work with testing forms currently employed by the California Committee of Bar Examiners, you will refine your ability to analyze legal principles and express your thoughts in an appropriate legal fashion.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: Fourth year JD only

CL781: Capstone II

This course is a continuation of CL780: Capstone I. This course provides you with an effective means of integrating what you have learned over the course of your legal education, building on a strong substantive and skills foundation to make critical judgments about the law and policy as a practicing attorney. Special attention will be devoted to the skills necessary for success on the California Bar Examination. Through work with testing forms currently employed by the California Committee of Bar Examiners, you will refine your ability to analyze legal principles and express your thoughts in an appropriate legal fashion.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: CL780

CL800: Commercial Law

This survey course covers essential business transactions involving the transfer of interests in personal property and the means by which the obligation to pay is secured and satisfied. Commercial Law will expose you to a wide variety of concepts governed by the articles of the Uniform Commercial Code including Sales (Article 2), Negotiable Instruments (Article 3), and Secured Transactions (Article 9). You will gain experience working with statutory law in the commercial arena. Special attention will be paid to security interests, checks, and securities. This is an important course if you seek exposure to fundamental business law concepts, creditor/debtor issues, and banking transactions.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: None

CL801: Contract Drafting

A lawyer once said, "Legal drafting is legal thinking made visible." The drafter's work makes explicit the parties' understanding of the deal, but also fills the "gaps" sometimes left in contract negotiations and anticipates problems that might arise in the future. This course uses contract drafting to (1) exemplify the principles of contract law; (2) illustrate those principles in a planning context rather than a litigation context; and (3) develop the legal skills of reading, writing, and analysis. Through a series of readings and drafting exercises, you will learn to analyze and draft contracts that accomplish the particular needs and objectives of your client.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL802: Business Planning and Skills Training - Practicum

This course focuses on the role of the lawyer as an advisor to closely held businesses and their owners. The required course materials include an online cyberworkbook entitled Drake on Representing Closely Held Entities, which is written by Dwight Drake on business planning and integrates case study problems written by Andrea Johnson. During the course, you will study and plan the creation, operation, and dissolution of a closely held company called "Compu Devices." This course's workbook integrates a primary textbook, course materials, and assessment tools that focus on California law. This is a practicum course and, as such, the focus in this course will be to provide hands-on skills training for business lawyers in devising strategies, negotiating agreements, and drafting business documents. You will work individually and in teams to negotiate and draft different types of documents used during the life of a business. You will be required to participate in one or more small group projects and must be able to accommodate conference calls and virtual meetings with your business partners outside of the regularly scheduled classes. Note: this course will utilize additional technologies that will require you to have a working headset and microphone, in addition to a high-speed Internet connection. You are also required to have Microsoft PowerPoint.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: CL700 and CL701 (can also be taken as a corequisite)

CL803: Debtor-Creditor Law

Debtor-creditor law encompasses state and nonbankruptcy federal law that governs how a creditor collects money a debtor owes the creditor. Debtor-creditor law mainly concerns when and how a creditor can acquire property of a debtor to satisfy an obligation the latter owes the former. A closely related concern is the extent to which a creditor's rights to do so, as against the debtor, are also valid and enforceable against the debtor's other creditors. This law applies without regard to the nature of the underlying debt, whether tort, contract, statutory liability, or any other substantive law. It applies, too, whether the debtor is a natural person or business entity and whether the debt is consumer or commercial. Debtor-creditor law has wide applicability in everyday practice and also drives, to an extent, the substance and practice of bankruptcy law, which in large part is a reaction to state debtor-creditor law. Therefore, this course is useful in itself and is foundational (even essential) to understanding and practicing bankruptcy law.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL804: International Trade

The World Trade Organization and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade restrain nations from adversely impacting trade with self-serving restrictions. The course will address, among other things, tariff and nontariff barriers, discrimination, regionalism, antidumping, countervailing duties, and safeguards. The course will also consider other facets of globalization such as economic policy, most-favored-nation status, and the relationship between trade and other regulatory areas or social values including environmental protection, health and safety standards, human rights, and intellectual property protection.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL805: Federal Taxation

This course examines the fundamental concepts underlying the federal income tax system, with emphasis on its history and current operation. Major topics that will be explored include determination of gross income and deductions, timing issues, and disposition of property, with emphasis on taxation of the individual. You will gain an understanding of the research tools used by lawyers in analyzing taxation issues.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: None

CL811: Administrative Law

This course provides an overview of administrative law and procedure, including the creation and authority of federal agencies and the ways that agencies exercise their authority to govern certain areas. It includes a review of agency rulemaking, investigation, and adjudicatory functions. It also includes judicial review of administrative agency actions. The assessments in the course give you hands-on opportunities to apply what you learn by completing projects on federal agencies in which you are interested and by addressing situations based on real agency actions.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: None

CL812: Conflict of Laws

This course examines the problems that arise in choosing the law to be applied to transactions, relationships, or occurrences that have contact with more than one state in the United States or with the United States and a foreign nation. The course begins with the problem of enforcing nonforum and foreign judgments in U.S. courts. Enforcement of judgments logically leads next to the consideration of U.S. constitutional constraints in the choice of substantive and procedural law that courts use in rendering a judgment. Finally, the course focuses on the various approaches, theories, and rules that courts have developed to guide them in choosing the law to be applied to interstate and international transactions, relationships, occurrences, and litigation.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: CL670 and CL671

CL813: Employment Discrimination

This course will focus on the federal statutory responses to the issues surrounding employment discrimination on the basis of age, disability, race, color, religion, sex, national origin, and alienage. In this context, you will examine the manner in which Congress and the federal courts have balanced the competing interests of preserving the rights to control private property with the nation's commitment to equal opportunity in employment. To that end, you will carefully examine the provisions of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, and sex, the nineteenth-century federal Reconstruction Civil Rights Acts, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL814: Products Liability

This course explores the legal aspects of injuries caused by products including design and warning defects, strict liability, and other causes of action. You will evaluate the current laws applicable to these areas and how they are applied through litigation and other remedies.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL815: Equine Law

Equine Law explores the law relating to the equine industry. Major topics covered include: law of common equine contracts (such as sale, boarding, indemnity and release agreements) and warranty issues. The course will also address the duties and obligations of agents, which include trainers, co-owners, and independent contractors. Secured transactions and insurance issues are also discussed. Other topics include: Equine Activity Liability legislation, associations, industry governance, tax issues, veterinary malpractice, and animal cruelty. You will gain an understanding of the challenges faced by industry participants and the legal landscape of use to equine law practitioners.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL820: Intellectual Property

This is a survey course in the field of intellectual property law. Topics that are covered include examination of the statutory basis and rationale for protection of inventions (patents), creative works (copyright), and brands (trademarks). The course will include review of the processes involved in obtaining federal protection of intellectual property and the threshold criteria for qualifying for such protection. The enforcement of intellectual property rights will also be discussed, including where subject matter and personal jurisdiction may be found.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: CL650, CL651, CL660, CL661, CL670, and CL671 recommended (can be taken as a corequisite)

CL821: Cyber Law

This broad survey course is designed to explore the legal, ethical, and technological issues involved in cyberspace. Topics will include: Internet history, policy development, governance, and regulation; jurisdiction; First Amendment and privacy; copyright and fair use; and trademark. The course lends itself to active discussion of issues. Discussion may require additional research and bluebook citation and, to promote active discussion, will have deadlines.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: CL651 and CL661 recommended

CL822: Patent Law Fundamentals

This class focuses on the law relating to the procurement and enforcement of patent rights. The course begins with an examination of the statutory basis for patents and how that relates to the "patentability requirements." The patentability requirements are also discussed in the context of patent litigation, where a failure to meet the requirements can provide a defendant a way to invalidate a patent that is asserted against it. In this course you will gain a broad overview of the patent laws as interpreted by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and applied by the various federal courts (primarily the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit) that have exclusive jurisdiction to hear patent matters.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL823: Patent Litigation

This course will focus on the law associated with enforcing patents through the U.S. district court system including the elements of the complaint (i.e., standing/jurisdiction, infringement, damages), issues arising in discovery (potential defenses), trial (the role of the judge and jury), and a potential appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC).

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: CL820 or CL822, CL670, and CL671 (can also be taken as corequisites)

CL824: Patent Claim Drafting

This class will focus almost entirely on the law and rules associated with writing claims that pass muster at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Such claims must be written to cover the invention and, at the same time, avoid the "prior art." Such claims should be of varying scope, commercially relevant, and stand up to validity challenges during litigation. This course will introduce you to sufficient principles regarding patent law to be able to understand the patent application prosecution process and write claims.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: CL820 or CL822 (can also be taken as corequisites)

CL825: Patent Application Drafting

This class is designed to be an introduction to drafting a complete patent application, filing the application, and understanding basic patent office procedures during subsequent prosecution of the application. A patent application consists of many parts and drafting requires the creator to understand the invention, understand the "prior art," and adequately describe the invention so that it is capable of being made by those skilled in the relevant art. The goal of this course is not mastery, but rather for you to become familiar with basic drafting techniques and rules.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: CL824

CL830: Health Law

This course introduces you to the legal issues involving the health care system and health care providers. Areas covered include licensing and discipline, informed consent, confidentiality, patient-professional relationships, liability of health care professionals and institutions, fraud and abuse, and beginning of life and end of life issues.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: None

CL831: Medical Malpractice/Professional Liability

This course examines the duty of health care professionals and organizations to provide appropriate care by addressing specific tort issues, practice guidelines and standards, applicable regulations, and data bank issues.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: CL830

CL832: Health Care Policy

This course explores the legal, political, and socioeconomic principles underlying the development, implementation, and trends in public health policies related to national and international health care initiatives and other legislative efforts in progress. You will analyze the development of health policies and will propose and negotiate future policy directions.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: CL830

CL833: Medical Products Liability

This course explores the legal aspects of health-related products liability, including medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and genetically engineered treatment modalities, plus relevant toxic tort issues. You will evaluate the current laws applicable to these areas and how they are applied through product liability claims and through administrative agencies like the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The course will emphasize health law issues in products liability and will also cover aspects of administrative law. The course assessments provide you with some hands-on opportunities to apply what you learn in a "real-world" way by completing projects on the FDA and on litigation involving medical devices and pharmaceuticals and by drafting pleadings and a judicial decision to address hypothetical situations.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL834: Risk Management in Health Care

This course explores various models and trends in risk management programs, along with their components. The course will focus on all forms of risk and risk management in health care environments, from initiation of care through completion of care.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: CL830

CL835: Bioethics

This course examines legal, ethical, and political implications of biological and technological advances in the following areas: human reproduction, fetal-maternal decision making, surrogacy, human genetics, death and dying of children and adults, physician-assisted death, human subjects research, and distributive justice in health care. These issues are addressed from the standpoint of the stakeholders - patients, health care providers, and government policy makers. You will draft legislation and codes of ethics, negotiate contracts, and write legal memoranda related to these topics.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: CL830

CL836: Health Law Independent Study

This course affords you the opportunity to write a major paper on a health law topic. Papers will have to be original, be significant in length, and reflect a high level of research and thorough analysis of a topic. You will develop a thesis or prepare an expository piece on a particular area of health law.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: CL830

CL840: Trial Advocacy - Theories, Tactics, and Techniques

This course introduces you to the fundamentals of the courtroom and oral advocacy. Interactive modules allow you to study the foundation of effective advocacy and to learn by doing. You are exposed to trial tactics and techniques including opening statements, direct and cross examinations, introduction of evidence, and closing arguments. You are assessed and receive feedback on your own performances via online video presentations. You must have access or arrange access to a webcam or other recording device that allows you to record videos online.

Credit Hours: 3 | Prerequisite: CL670 and CL671; CL710 and CL711 (can be taken as a corequisite)

CL841: ADR and Technology

ADR and Technology explores how technology can facilitate dispute resolution and problem solving. You will analyze online dispute resolution platforms that already exist, and you will have an opportunity to resolve disputes using those platforms. You first will be introduced to different traditional offline dispute resolution processes. You then will use and critically evaluate different audio, video, and text-based technologies that can assist in resolving disputes; become familiar with several existing dispute resolution software programs that are available commercially; study and discuss current literature concerning technology-mediated dispute resolution; and be expected to use video and audio technology to make a presentation to the entire class. You are expected to attend select live class sessions. You must have, or have ready access to, a web camera (webcam) as well as a sufficiently fast Internet connection to participate in a direct negotiation via webcam. You are also required to participate in dispute resolution simulations using email and instant messaging.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL842: Oral Argument Training and Practice

This course covers effective oral argument and how to implement presentational skills in the context of how to argue a case before an appellate court. The skills, however, apply equally to (1) students who will argue a motion before a trial court and (2) students who never intend to practice law but, on occasion, need to speak before a group of people. You will analyze and apply legal principles and policy to a complicated fact pattern and improve your skills in organization and logical thinking. While there are written assignments, success in the course turns on two oral arguments, one on each side of the case. You will work with partners and on teams. The overarching goal of this course is "collaborative learning," and you will research, analyze, and plan arguments in "law firm" teams. This is an opportunity to work in cooperative groups toward a final collective goal.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None | Corequisite: CL730

CL843: Virtual Law Practice

Virtual law practice is a fact of operation for the vast majority of modern law firms; even law firms that would not be considered to be wholly virtual nonetheless incorporate components of virtual practice. This course will focus on the practical aspects of virtual law practice management, and the constituent technology inputs that make up such a practice, making this a useful overview if you wish to incorporate any aspect of virtual practice into what you will do. This course will also address ethical considerations, client acquisition tactics, staffing, data management, and the future of virtual law firms.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL850: Education Law

Education Law provides you with an overview of key topics in the field by examining the constitutional principles, statutes, agency regulations, and judicial decisions that have shaped public and private education. The course will help you understand how these various sources of law affect schools and their students and staff. Topics include: foundational principles; school funding; employment issues; school liability; instruction and curricular issues; privacy rights and right-to-know laws; student and teacher rights in areas such as the First Amendment, discipline, discrimination, and religion; search, seizure, and interrogation; special education; other federal laws; and cutting- edge topics such as electronic speech, discipline for off-campus behavior, cyberbullying, strip searches, and education reform. The course uses a problem-based approach that allows you to apply what you learn by discussing and addressing real-world situations through various problems, activities, and assessments. You will also go outside of the classroom materials to gather information about how education law works in practice in your own state.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: None

CL855: Special Education Law

Special Education Law provides you with an overview of key topics in the field by examining the statutes, agency regulations, and judicial decisions that have shaped special education. Topics include evaluations, eligibility, the meaning of a free and appropriate public education (FAPE), Individual Education Programs (IEPs), placement, least restrictive environment requirements, discipline, procedural safeguards, dispute resolution, Section 504/ADA, and remedies. The course will help you understand how the legal standards that govern these topics impact the services that schools must provide to students with disabilities. The course allows you to apply what you learn by discussing and addressing real-world situations through various problems and assessments. You will also go outside of the classroom materials to gather information about how special education law works in practice and in your state.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: None

CL880: EJD Practicum

The EJD Practicum provides you with the opportunity to experience the law in a practical setting. You will apply your knowledge of the law in a business or other appropriate setting that may be law related but is not the practice of law. You will work with the Director of the EJD Practicum to identify and obtain approval for an appropriate externship in your location. This elective also requires additional coursework including lectures, discussion groups, and writing assignments.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: 48 credits completed in EJD program; minimum 2.0 cumulative GPA

CL885: Legal Education Experience Program

The Legal Education Experience Program (LEEP) provides you with the opportunity to experience the law in a practical setting. You will work under a supervising attorney in a judicial, law firm, public law office, corporate, or government setting. You will work with the Director of LEEP to identify and obtain approval for an appropriate externship in your location. This elective also requires additional coursework including lectures, discussion groups, and writing assignments.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: JD only; minimum 2.0 cumulative GPA

CL890: Independent Study

This course requires you to design and execute a research project that generally will result in a paper of at least 30 pages. If you are considering this elective, you should review the Independent Study Request Form for further information on the expectations for student work in the course and the process for getting approval of an independent study project.

Credit Hours: 2 | Prerequisite: Preapproval via Independent Study Request Form, cumulative GPA requirement. | Corequisite: CL720 (JD) or CJ725 (EJD)

CL891: Independent Study

This course requires you to design and execute a research project that generally will result in a paper of at least 45 pages. If you are considering this elective you should review the Independent Study Request Form for further information on the expectations for student work in the course and the process for getting approval of an independent study project.

Credit Hours: 3 | Prerequisite: Preapproval via Independent Study Request Form, cumulative GPA requirement | Corequisite: CL720 (JD) or CL725 (EJD)

CL892: Independent Study

This course requires you to design and execute a research project that generally will result in a paper of at least 60 pages. If you are considering this elective you should review the Independent Study Request Form for further information on the expectations for student work in the course and the process for getting approval of an independent study project. As an alternative to the research paper, if you are a member of Concord's moot court competition teams, you may also qualify for independent study credit. Concord's moot court competition teams will consist of fourth-term JD students and third-term JD students who are invited to participate in the Moot Court Honors Program by the Moot Court Team Advisor. You must be willing to travel to the chosen competition locale to participate in the oral argument portion of the competition, as well as prepare and submit an appellate brief that conforms to the requirements of the moot court competition in which they participate. You must also prepare for and participate in all practice appellate arguments, as directed by your advisor, in advance of the competition date. Independent study credit will also be determined by the Moot Court Team Advisor consistent with Concord's credit hour requirements.

Credit Hours: 4 | Prerequisite: Preapproval via Independent Study Request Form, cumulative GPA requirement | Corequisite: CL720 (JD) or CL725 (EJD)

CL900: Concord First

Concord First is a not-for-credit review program designed to prepare Concord JD students for the First Year Law Student's Exam (FYLSE). Although participation in Concord First is not mandatory, you may not continue on to the second year unless you either achieve a grade of "B-" or better in Concord First or pass the FYLSE. Concord First includes essay and multiple choice exercises covering contracts, criminal law, and torts, as well as class sessions to review these exercises and discuss exam-taking techniques and strategies. Concord First culminates in a residential weekend where you will undertake a mock exam under timed conditions and review the answers to the exam questions.

Credit Hours: 0 | Prerequisite: JD only

CL950: Second Time Success

The Second Time Success (STS) program is designed to help you focus your studying as you prepare to retake the First-Year Law Students' Exam. In addition to individual feedback and support, STS is centered on a series of live seminars. The first seminar reviews your experiences in preparing for the FYLSE and discusses strategies for overcoming obstacles to preparedness. STS also includes lectures and written assignments from the Concord First course and concludes with FYLSE seminars which begin approximately one month prior to the exam.

Credit Hours: 0 | Prerequisite: None